Dissociation. It’s what I do when I run. I focus on a far off object. I time my breathing to my cadence (though I’ve also read that this is bad for various reasons). I tell myself to get there, then I just pick another target. I’m at my best when I’m aiming for something. I don’t think about the run. Just concentrate on my breathing, cadence, and target. However, the second part of the article about mental expectations is also true. If I plan on running X miles in Y time, I find myself pacing my energy for it. Like doing what my mind expects and nothing else. Not that I’ve run recently (being lazy these days, very very lazy).